Akō vendetta : Revenge of the 47 Ronin

The bushidō, “the way of the warrior,” was the samurai’s code of conduct. It exemplified a warrior’s moral values in mastery of martial arts, frugality, loyalty, and honor unto death. A rōnin was a samurai with no lord or master. A samurai could lose his master from death or even from falling out of his master’s favor. The story of the Akō vendetta, or the Revenge of the 47 Ronin, during the Genroku Akō incident is a perfect example of a samurai living up to their code of honor.

The story of  the Revenge of the 47 Ronin goes like this…

ronin3In 1701, there were two daimyo (powerful lords)—Asano Takumi-no-Kami Naganori, the young daimyo of a small fiefdom in western Honshū known as the Akō Domain,  and Lord Kamei of the Tsuwano Domain. Both were ordered to organize a reception for the Emperor’s envoys in Edo sankin kōtai service (a daimyo’s alternate-year residence in Edo) to the Shogun. The Edo official, Kira Kozuke-no-Suke Yoshinaka, was not satisfied with the offerings because they lacked the bribes that he wanted. Anticipating the disaster that could ensue, Kamei’s counselors offered Kira a large bribe without Kamei knowing. This prompted Kira to treat Kamei better but continued to insult Asano, who lost his patience, attacked Kira with a dagger, and wounded the official’s face. Asano was ordered to kill himself by committing seppuku (ritual suicide by disembowelment). All his lands were taken, his family was ruined, and his samurai retainers were to be made ronin after his death.

Print depicting the ronin, on their way back to Sengakuji after the attack on Kira.

Ōishi Yoshio, the head chamberlain of the Asano estate and the leader of the 47 ronin, moved the Asano family away and refused to let his master’s death go unavenged. Revenge was prohibited, but the 47 ronin swore a secret oath to eventually avenge Asano by killing Kira.

Ōishi_YoshioKira was heavily guarded at all times. To stave off any doubt from Kira that any loyal envoys of Asano plotted revenge, Ōishi moved to Kyoto and even divorced his wife of 20 years to keep her safe once they had killed Kira. Ōishi frequented geisha houses, acted like a drunk, and was thought to be a disgrace. The other ronin spread around Japan and became monks or tradesmen. All this was reposted to Kira who gradually let his guard down. It took two years for Ōishi to be totally convinced that Kira had completely let down his guard. On the 4th day of the 12th month of the 15th year of  Genroku (January 30, 1703), the 47 ronin sought to avenge their master. They followed the bushidō to the letter, allowing Kira to commit seppuku, but he stayed quiet and shaking in fear. Ōishi had to ask other ronin to pin Kira down as he cut his head off with a dagger.  The 47 ronin washed and offered Kira’s head on the tomb of their master and said prayers. Then they gave themselves up for sentencing.

 Ōishi Yoshio.

ronin1The death of Kira was no loss, for he was not well-liked. The 47 ronin were just following their code of honor, yet they also defied the shogunate’s authority. 46 ronin were sentenced to take their own lives by seppuku rather than being executed. They each performed the ritual that took their lives on the 4th day of the 2nd month in 16th year of Genroku (March  20, 1703).  The 47th ronin was Terasaka Kichiemon, who was deemed too young to commit seppuku. He was pardoned by the Shogun and lived to be 87 years old. All 47 ronin are now interred in front of the tomb of their master in the grounds of Sengaku-ji Temple, Tokyo.

47 Ronin graveyard at Sengaku-ji Temple.